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On behalf of the two sessions: the safety of school bus can be a "standard" in place

On February 23, a student in watching the school bus operators launching ceremony of "big nose" school bus. Sixth middle school in Zhongwei City, Ningxia Zhongwei Shapotou school bus operators launching ceremony was held the same day 40 dedicated school buses put into use
    To myself! "School bus" with a yell, which had children tricycles a scattering of children playing instantaneous gather from waiting in line to board the school bus of their beloved "big nose". "New school bus spacious and friends, as well as TV, ride tricycles, compared with the past, this car is a pleasure." Zhongwei City riverside town board village students Xiaoyuan said.
    February 23, Zhongwei City investment of more than 1500 million purchase of 40 American baby tricycle school bus officially "posts", responsible for Shuttle Shapotou District 19 schools, 1969 students in kindergarten.
    With the kid tricycles introduction of the "school bus safety regulations (draft)", for students with the safest school bus has become the consensus of the community, is gratifying that more and more local governments to join the ranks of the initiative, the Government investment professional safety of school bus operators are increasing daily.
    GB OK school bus privileges
    The end of 2011, a series of school bus safety incidents to school bus once again pushed to the cusp. Where serious overloading worrying quality, lack of supervision of the three major problems most criticized. November 27, Premier Wen Jiabao at the Fifth National Women and Children Work Conference stressed the need to prevent and avoid accidental injury in children, in particular, to strengthen the campus security, fire safety and school bus traffic safety. The State Council has instructed the relevant departments of the rapid development of school bus safety regulations, strive to improve the school bus standards, do a good job in the school bus design, production, transformation, with, and the establishment of appropriate management systems.
    A number of privileges after only 13 days, leading the drafting of the State Council Legislative Affairs Office of School Bus Safety Ordinance (draft) "(hereinafter referred to as" GB ") formally introduced the new national standards clearly enjoy school bus school bus configuration, road priority .
    In the end, what kind of car to become a school bus? Reality which people are able to open the school bus? Ordinary manned passenger cars, buses, and even agricultural tricycle, tractor and scrapped vehicles will be used as a school bus, vehicle overloading is a common phenomenon .
    A set of data shows that as of April 2011, the country at all levels of kindergarten, elementary, junior high total used nearly 290,000 vehicles to shuttle students to and from school, and in line with the vehicle less than "dedicated primary school bus safety technology conditions" 30,000, accounting for only 10%.
    GB further stipulates the standards of the school bus, in line with the seven passenger cars, four conditions before they can apply for the use as a school bus.
    In addition, Beijing Normal University, the Faculty of Education, Professor Yuan Guilin proposed traffic driver, school bus driver qualifications should be strict rules. GB responded that defined the requirements for school bus driver, such as the driver is required to obtain the appropriate permission to drive the disqualification of three years or more is not out of the last three in a row, scoring cycle records.
    Improve school bus standard, the driver level is one of the important means to reduce the incidents of school bus safety, school bus right of way most concern. "If there is no privilege is on the road, the school bus and the ordinary passenger also almost the same." In this regard, GB provides school bus carrying students in the bus lanes and other prohibited social vehicle traffic but allow roads and public transport vehicles to pass. Carrying students when the school bus, the traffic police should be commanding divert school buses priority access parking; school bus on the road of students up and down the rear of the vehicle should stop waiting for the prohibition beyond.
    "GB" text service to the school bus by school bus use license, the driver of a school bus, school vehicle traffic safety, school bus ride safety, etc. relating to the safety of the school bus every link have made detailed provisions in these priority so that the school bus a true sense of the "privileges cars. If these provisions can be effectively implemented, child safety will be more secure.
    National People's Congress, Zhou Hongyu no previous professional school bus system in China, there is no corresponding laws and regulations, therefore, the introduction of the "GB" is particularly necessary for the establishment of the school bus system.
 February 21, Huangpi Area Hengdian Central Primary School students sitting in the new school bus ready to go home after school. New semester this year, the school adopted a multi-party financing to purchase six school buses, distant children pick. Just a dollar each student take a school bus, the school will raise the remainder of the funds to subsidize school bus operations costs.
Who is responsible for funding problems
    "GB" on school bus safety safeguards so that people looking forward to, but not without fear. School bus privileges necessary, but the privilege is not enough, the cost of school buses come from is an unavoidable issue in the legislature. "Yang Dongping, said the director of the Institute of Educational Sciences of Beijing Institute of Technology, 21st Century Education Development Research Institute.
    Who will pay for the purchase or lease of a school bus? Petrol, road maintenance, drivers' wages who control? "GB" on the answers to these questions are not clear, only provides funding support for school bus services is shared by the central and local finances The specific measures have not yet introduced. The relevant department head repeatedly stressed that the funding of the school bus is not a small number, not thanks to national investment, but also rely on social forces.
    Solve school bus problem much money to spend? Relevant departments of Statistics data show that nationwide pre-school and compulsory education and purchase of school buses, the government needs to invest 300 billion yuan budget and a year of operation and maintenance costs of 150 billion yuan . Some people believe that this cost thanks to the State, too much financial pressure.
    Some users do not agree with this view. Tax revenue growth year after year, not bad money ", to" keep the bus money to buy the school bus on the money "... made friends, school bus should be financed entirely by the local government to pay the bill, those areas of the financial difficulties, the central government should like receiving compulsory education tuition and fees, and the implementation of the free lunch program, come up with a few hundred million to help local.
    Moreover, the funds for the purchase of school buses is just the tip of the iceberg, in reality, the operating expenses of the school bus is probably more worried about the people. "Even if the country can afford to buy a car money, vehicle maintenance, driver wages and other expenses how to do? School bus operators is low, little income, we can not 赔本赚吆喝." Operating company executives who requested anonymity complained.
    In China, the school bus is difficult to be resolved through the market. The CEOs to reporters calculations: a school bus, for example, a car more than ten million, around $ 30,000 a year oil money, drivers' wages in the three or four million a year, plus vehicle insurance and maintenance costs, one year down the cost of seven million. The big overhead income, little school bus daily operations twice a year there is a three-month vacation, so that down the company's long-term "make ends meet" denunciation of this area.
    In addition to funding, the school bus but also to ensure the safety of every student, school, operating companies, and even the government did not dare to set foot in the field of school bus. "Every day out of the bus I are especially nervous, fear the child accidentally is little knock a small touch, I can not afford to be magnanimous." Said a nursery school bus driver.
    At the Renmin University of China Professor Mao Shoulong, student transportation safety is the responsibility of the parents. Not to say that all children get on the safety of school buses, the child is completely safe, no matter how good the car may also be a safety accident. So, the school bus just a student transportation choice, but not the only option. "What are National lump sum, will inevitably bring the waste, degradation and other issues."
It seems that the "privilege" of school bus floor, still need to clarify many of the details of the problem. Otherwise, even the school bus did not come from privilege?
    Local mode crack problem
    Promotion of professional school bus has become the consensus of the community, but up to now, 'GB' and not related to school bus operators clear way the regulation is not in the school bus safety management professional vacuum. "Xiamen King Long United Automotive Industry Co., Ltd. responsible official expressed concern about the operation status of the school bus.
    The school bus operator issues abound, operations management irregularities and lack of management processes, not only increases the difficulty of the supervision of the school bus, also disrupted the market order. Some professional school bus operators because of the high cost, less income and unsustainable, still can be seen everywhere in the black car with low operating costs.
    Whether the school bus will not be able to crack it? 2011, the Ministry of Education decided in six regions of Deqing County, Zhejiang, Shandong Weihai City, and Wudi County, Binzhou City, Huanren County, Benxi City, Liaoning, Heilongjiang Jixi City, Shaanxi Xi'an Yanliang District to carry out the operation and management of primary and secondary schools car pilot.
    , Deqing County in 2009, 20 million yuan to purchase 79 school buses, and at the same time the management company is responsible for the establishment of a dedicated school bus operators, about 6000 students enjoy the school bus service; implementation of Wudi County school bus monthly pass system, students per The ride costs $ 120 month, traveling students, financial subsidies to the standard of 50 yuan per person per month; Weihai newly purchased school bus all the government support, in addition, fiscal year according to the actual situation, to give every school bus 1.5 ranging from 10000-22000 yuan subsidy, at the same time, the education sector stagger the time of a student from school to improve the utilization of the school bus, so that every school bus a day early nights roundtrip shuttle students to achieve every school bus 20000 yuan net income.
It seems that in order to children sit on the safety of school buses, have to rely on the government to regulate only the visible hand. The government-funded, professional operators is a more realistic approach. Li Tao, director of the National Passenger Car Quality Supervision and Inspection Center Impact Laboratory, rural and remote areas is an urgent need for government regulation and control of the school bus market.
    School bus and not full settlement hopes the central and local governments can not vacancy should assume regulatory responsibility. "During the interview, a number of experts who hold this view.
    At the same time, we found that many local governments to take the initiative to resolve the problems of the school bus, their experience also gives us a lot of inspiration.
    Development Zone, Shandong Yantai City bus line extends to the doorstep of every child, students free to take a shuttle bus to shuttle students the cost shared by the district's financial and subdistrict offices. Jilin Qian'an county government and the owners of each funded half of the purchase of 136 school vehicles, the two sides signed a "school bus operator management agreement", to require all school car owners insured Secretary multiplied by insurance, 10 years shall not be any reason to exit the shuttle students operating market, can not be transferred, the sale of or mortgage, 10 years after the school bus owned by the owners of all.
    Local practice as we explore the reality of school bus operators to provide a reference. Yuan Guilin also put forward an idea, the government should play a leading school bus, coordination, supervision, and services, protect the role. The government does not have to specifically responsible for purchasing, operations and affairs of the school bus, can encourage schools to do the government to assume regulatory responsibility and assume overall planning work, such as the design of the route.
    School bus fees should be government-led social participation this principle, but more should be highlighted in the government-led. "Said Yang Dongping.
    The topic has been discussed for many years on the school bus, school bus safety responsibilities just who should be responsible for how the right of way of the school bus into the actual series of problems still waiting for a national answer.
    The person in charge of the education sector, said: "though according to some of the actual situation, launched a comprehensive professional school bus, there is a certain degree of difficulty, but the relevant departments have begun to explore and study opened the possibility of a professional school bus, I believe that there will be measures.
    We believe that, with the introduction of relevant national policies, the road safe school bus will no longer distant, let us wait and see.
    Legislation to clearly define their respective responsibilities
    According to the needs of the school education and the reality of the problem of school bus stand on this most basic of the safety of students, the most direct position to develop specific school bus regulations, in accordance with the Constitution and other relevant laws, specifically related to the responsibilities of the parties is a priority. Nearly 200 years of history in many developed countries, the use of the school bus, a lot of the relevant laws of the country there are hundreds of different kinds, all relevant legal issues involving school bus safety, will clear the student's life safety supreme can not be violated, and no reason to let the face of the slightest risk. Its most fundamental reason: the students are the future and hope of the country and the nation, and students find it difficult to be fully protected for their own safety, must be fully national, social, business, family and school parties, can not be of any omissions mishap absolute security and system support.
    Countries in extremely detailed provisions in the relevant laws of the school bus. Such as in the manufacture of the school bus, the chassis weight, engine, door open at the approved passenger capacity, safety protection facilities when the accident occurred, colors and signal flags, and other hard conditions must be standard; social vehicles, school buses have absolute priority, even beyond the level of ambulances, fire engines, is the safest means of transport, in cases where the school up and down when parked roadside student, even police cars, ambulances, fire engines, must be completely in the parking and opened a distance of at least 20 meters, when the school bus stops around the speed of the vehicle shall not be more than 15 miles; threat where the school bus ride students will be given a federal offense, serious to sentence of 20 years or life imprisonment. Refinement, due to legal system is reasonable and supervision in place, severe punishment, school bus traffic accidents in the United States and other countries are reduced to less than one ten thousandth of the high level of protection of the safety of students. In China, the school bus problem occurred in the past due to the lack of a specific system and detailed legal norms, responsible for local government, school or corporate managers, not only the purpose of diversity, even purely profit-making ideas, and the corresponding risk do not want to assume responsibility. Resulting in a confusion that since, and can not be held accountable.
    Course, involving nationals of one of the fundamental rights of the school bus, it is impossible by the government on the one hand independent risk, but also by the society, schools and other related parties on the basis of clear responsibilities and rights of the common burden. Obviously, to the implementation of the school bus system, government, schools and the school bus, will face the very real adjustment and select must bear the responsibility, in the cross-border management to distinguish. Although the practice can also be introduced insurance agencies again to share, but if the law is too principles, in general terms, not clear, not clear, the implementation process will chaos.
In this regard, the international experience and relevant laws and regulations are very rich and complete. Approach is worth learning: invested by the government is responsible for legislation and supervision, and the development of high-grade enterprise, vehicles, drivers, security standards, and clear the route, the priority of the right of way and the strict penalty clauses; self-regulation by the industry, the implementation of training, vehicle maintenance, to ensure safe operations; school bus-related education and students ride training school; social aspects jointly promote national school bus-related legal knowledge to understand, including avoidance, safe distance, school bus color.
    From the specific national conditions of China's current legislation, law enforcement, and supervision of the overall legal construction, the status of industry norms and self-discipline, responsibility and management of the relevant parties, traffic conditions and social state of the environment, respond to disasters and dangerous ability status, are to be further improved. If you rush the introduction of regulations Prospectus spread investment in all aspects of the responsibility, obligation can not be shared in place, not only the school bus is difficult to improve, but also lead to new chaos. Particularly in our real needs school bus the remote poverty-stricken areas, the factors that affect the safety of the school bus a lot, including road conditions, natural disasters, social order, the Secretary multiply and management personnel quality, maintenance and rescue conditions, school arrangements whether in place, families and communities of with management oversight and limitations of the system itself are difficult in the short term to achieve the desired state in law-making and system design, ignore the concrete reality and details may appear, is not only related to the legal, institutional authority and solemnity of severely questioned, but also to the practice of the school bus to bring many new difficulties.
    For this reason, our school bus, on the one hand, to clarify the principles and ideas, pay close attention to the introduction of relevant laws, straighten out the legal relationship, clear standards and responsibilities; On the other hand, after in-depth research experiments, no one left to uncover them all possible security risks, and detailed provisions, the publicity, the accumulation of cases, the efforts to achieve the ultimate responsible for primary and secondary school students in China to create the conditions and environment of basic safety school.
    Inter-school bus management system
    United States: federal, state and local government co-management
    Starting from the mid-1960s, the U.S. education law to take the school bus to school system mandatory. School bus system in the U.S. is very strict, including the manufacturing standards of the school bus driver screening traffic priority rules. The U.S. Department of Transportation in recent years issued 36 safety standards for school buses, school bus body structure, protection against overturning, brake. The school bus service is jointly managed by the federal, state and local government. Federal and state laws and regulations enacted by the school bus, a total of as many as 500. States every year a meeting specifically on the school bus to discuss a national conference every five years.
    UK: the establishment of a dedicated school bus committee
    British Government school bus (Safety) Act enacted in 2009. Cabinet Minister of 5 people school bus committee, to monitor and report the effect of the implementation of the Act, the Commission to report regularly to the Cabinet minister, shall include the year with the school bus-related traffic accident data, accident cause, injury and death toll. Cabinet ministers to the Commission pay the costs incurred by the latter in the performance of their duties, and all costs incurred by these fees and the implementation of the bill ultimately by the Parliament.
    Japan: management and supervision of the local Board of Education
    Japanese school bus operators generally have two modes: the purchase of vehicles by the local government as a dedicated school bus, and to recruit school bus drivers; Second, local government or school transport companies signed a contract to transfer students in the tasks entrusted to each other. No matter what kind of business model, school bus drivers and transportation companies entrusted to undergo management and supervision of the local Board of Education. 70% of children need to take the school bus to school, some kindergarten only a school bus, and therefore can only fight the time difference - the school bus is divided into three routes rotation Shuttle. Children of early school morning, late vice versa. This also alleviate congested traffic, and helps to reduce traffic accidents.
    Canada: provincial education and transport sector joint management
    Canadian school bus stop to move out from the front side of an approximately 1-meter-long yellow traffic sign posts indicating not close to other traffic sign posts; extending laterally from the side of the school bus that says "stop", warning other vehicles suspended. Only when the kids are on the bus seat, two traffic sign posts put away, the school drove away other vehicle before prevailing. Super school bus is a violation of the traffic rules of behavior in many provinces in Canada, must be a fine, penalty points. The management of the school bus in Canada is mainly the responsibility of the provinces, the provincial education and transport sector through design science school bus, a strict and orderly management and the implementation of the various systems, and effectively protect the safety of students.

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